The basis of successful counterinsurgency is acquiring intelligence to identify an enemy that often hides in plain sight. The remaining six chapters cover the operational aspects of the overall campaign; intelligence, the … Without security nothing else will last." Moreover, in the case of Afghanistan, heavy airstrikes and substantial US support to war lords did managed to topple the Taliban regime, but did not extinguish the insurgency. Even though U.S. forces have left Iraq and there is a planned reduction in U.S. forces in Afghanistan, the era of counterinsurgency is far from over. g�D�v֦R"N����o��Z���7�-s;�=�+W �p�K%a��n�aZ��������LUa�>}x=d�0T! 0000014415 00000 n Indeed, counterinsurgency is a common function for most states and an inevitable one for empires. 0000014362 00000 n Most insurgencies utilize a combination of guerrilla and terrorist tactics—the former are hit-and-run attacks directed primarily at government security forces, the latter are attacks directed primarily against civilians—supported by propaganda and political organizing. How do the principles … From Strategy to Tactics 61 Command Problems 61 Selection of the Area of Efforts 67 Political Preparation 71 The First Area as … U�?��c�=�Fi���֘��+�v���W��R3ki �E���rrUg��x���Q_���Ik���A-�N5�M�1:�Q�\��ucB�>p]Y�C�x0���q�0 |f��4 ��D�[��I荴X�J��U~�0�|׊O(L�o�� գ,1c8ܚ���ԫVz����)��i�ZQ���T Accessed here at Small Wars Journal. Fundamental Principles of COIN . However, counterinsurgency is a strange and complicated beast. ... What are some principles, which you have identified, that have not changed with the evolution of technology? 0000003672 00000 n Principles of Counterinsurgency . �"�Gi���n�,�ahX��-����g�/� ��{�l�d�>��&2̈!�Ld�'�3M�*$0z� ? Counter-insurgency is normally conducted as a combination of conventional military operations and other means, such as propaganda, psy-ops, and assassinations. 0000000016 00000 n To understand counter-insurgency, one must understand insurgencyto comprehend the dynamics of revolutionary warfare. ATTP 3-37.31, Civilian Casualties Mitigation, June 2012. The first five chapters cover aspects of the law, the principles of counter insurgency, a concept of operations and the coordination of a plan of action by a government at the strategic level. 0000008763 00000 n Additional counterinsurgency doctrine is being developed. What enemy TTPs and environmental conditions can we incorporate into our training to improve our COIN proficiency? FM 3-05.2, Foreign Internal Defense, September 2011. Counterinsurgency is the use of all elements of a nation's power—including not only combined-arms operations but also psychological, political, economic, intelligence, and diplomatic operations—to defeat an insurgency. --T.E. 0000014523 00000 n If there were no immutable laws or empirical formulas for counterinsurgency, there existed certain basic principles and traits that marked and will continue to mark successful, and unsuccessful, outcomes. Counter-insurgency operations include many different facets: military, paramilitary, political, economic, psychological, and civic actions taken to defeat insurgency. How did the leaders who led successful COIN operations in the past prepare prior to combat. The third Marques of Santa Cruz de Marcenado(1684–1732) is probably the earliest author who dealt systematically in his writings with counter-insurgency. T.E. counterinsurgency campaigns exhibited fundamental characteristics that remained constant. Following the principles and imperatives does not guarantee suc­ cess, which is just one of the several paradoxes of counterinsurgency. However, counterinsurgency is a strange and complicated beast. Irregular-warfare tactics, on the other hand, have shown a far higher likelihood of success against American military forces. endstream endobj 471 0 obj<>/Metadata 95 0 R/PieceInfo<>>>/Pages 94 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/StructTreeRoot 97 0 R/Type/Catalog/LastModified(D:20090608183821)/PageLabels 92 0 R>> endobj 472 0 obj<>/ColorSpace<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC/ImageI]/ExtGState<>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 473 0 obj[474 0 R 475 0 R 476 0 R 477 0 R 478 0 R 479 0 R 480 0 R] endobj 474 0 obj<>/A 504 0 R/H/I/StructParent 1/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 475 0 obj<>/A 503 0 R/H/I/StructParent 2/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 476 0 obj<>/A 502 0 R/H/I/StructParent 3/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 477 0 obj<>/A 501 0 R/H/I/StructParent 4/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 478 0 obj<>/A 500 0 R/H/I/StructParent 5/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 479 0 obj<>/A 499 0 R/H/I/StructParent 6/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 480 0 obj<>/A 498 0 R/H/I/StructParent 7/Border[0 0 0]/Type/Annot>> endobj 481 0 obj<> endobj 482 0 obj<> endobj 483 0 obj<> endobj 484 0 obj[/Indexed 485 0 R 46 505 0 R] endobj 485 0 obj[/ICCBased 497 0 R] endobj 486 0 obj<> endobj 487 0 obj<> endobj 488 0 obj<> endobj 489 0 obj<>stream endstream endobj 490 0 obj<>stream 0000014577 00000 n Counterinsurgency is the use of all elements of a nation's power—including not only combined-arms operations but also psychological, political, economic, intelligence, and diplomatic operations—to defeat an insurgency. General Petraeus: I think many of the concepts of the past counterinsurgency campaigns remain valid. Property & Peace: Insurgency, Strategy and the Statute of Frauds, DIA, 2008. July, 2008. Defence Studies: Vol. 0 The widely distributed and influential work of Sir Robert Thompson offers several such guidelines. From: Counter Insurgency Operations(1995) These principles are in fact derived from earlier UK works dating back as far as 1977. Insurgencies typically have political or religious motivation but criminal gangs can also become powerful enough to imperil a state's authority. It is based on existing doctrine and lessons learned from recent combat operations. 0000001118 00000 n But what does all the theory mean, at the company level? For all these reasons irregular warfare will continue to be prevalent. Letter from Iraq: The Lesson of Tal Afar, by George Packard, The New Yorker, April 10, 2006, The Colombian Miracle by Max Boot and Richard W. Bennett, The Weekly Standard, December 7, 2009, 28 Articles: Fundamentals of Company-Level Counterinsurgency by David Kilcullen, Conflict in the 21st Century: The Rise of Hybrid Wars, by Frank Hoffman, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, Dr. Ucko and Dr. Egnell explore the lessons about counterinsurgency that we have learned during the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. H�|�Ko�0������E�mأ���Q*E�(�. First, maneuver leaders should become familiar with the relevant Army doctrine, which in turn can provide leaders with a context for studying history. As John Paul Vann, an American adviser in Vietnam, said, "Security may be ten percent of the problem, or it may be ninety percent, but whatever it is, it's the first ten percent or the first ninety percent. 177-194. ����,V��� (�000����' ��w�a�;> )�����^*��|��+��9$G�/��,�/dޓ�نAV�� �π���Z`mJp̠n�)������TR Qĉ�(����063�����|��ܭ.,�����i���^L b\�#g�Ε���Aj�0�J?��n%nx\�mx͋׻ The author concludes that a Viet Cong military victory in South Vietnam is not possible as … The first law is that the population is paramount. 0000014752 00000 n Examples include the Philippine Insurrection, the Boer War, the Huk Rebellion, the Malay Emergency, the "Troubles" in Northern Ireland, the 1980s war in El Salvador, the "surge" in Iraq, the Second Intifada, and Colombia's campaign against the FARC in the past decade. This manual continues the efforts of FM 3-24, Counterinsurgency, There 0000001714 00000 n Counterinsurgency (COIN) operations are very complex and have been the topic of numerous books, articles, and debates over the last decade. The Army should use the lessons learned in Iraq and Afghanistan to more effectively combat the current war against sexual predators in the Armed Forces. Strikingly, Santa Cruz recognized that insurgencies are usually due to real grievances: "A state rarely rises up without the fault of its governors." #�pt 1 - 1 1-2. Next, leaders might study a specific COIN operation in which integration of whole-of-government efforts made possible the defeat or significant diminution of the enemy. It is the foremost responsibility of a commander in a COIN environment to understand the unique human and geographical terrain on which the maneuver forces operate. iӍ�u��HMnT��=):���֯d7'�E��+\��&z����8=�qE��@?�]�L�8�Nj�-��WSV��:=�B�6xR�Wt��x��9"8��]�#dz���1'��7Y�'I�N�0c��"r����O�m�닔�.��Q�f���X�U�=� �)?f endstream endobj 491 0 obj<>stream It is based on lessons learned from historic counterinsurgencies and current operations. It will be combined (qRO�Ҫ����l��fW�s�{����՛������_͖s�p?�������6��#NA(p�B*)�L�TD�O�"ɉbXs���G Certain basic principles of counter-insurgency warfare have been well known since the 1950s and 1960s. the principles of warfare remain the same. %%EOF Sir Robert Thompson’s Lessons for Iraq: Bringing the ‘Basic Principles of Counter‐Insurgency’ into the 21st Century. from the early “classics” of the Western counterinsurgency canon such as those of David Galula and Sir Robert Thompson through to the recent U.S. field manual on counterinsurgency, FM 3-24.10 As discussed in detail below, there is reason to believe that two core principles of Western counterinsurgency doctrine—the need to 0000008019 00000 n That is, the support of the people is the primary objective of a counterinsurgency campaign. startxref 0000009512 00000 n trailer International organizations, non-governmental organizations, and the news media are also likely to be present on the battlefield, and the successful commander must interact with them constructively, and if possible use them to achieve campaign objectives, even though they are outside the military chain of command. Second, once familiar with relevant doctrine, leaders should read books and articles that provide an overview of irregular warfare operations since ancient times as well as accounts of its evolution since the early 20th century. 0000010997 00000 n ", Dr. David Ucko and Dr. Robert Egnell Questions and Answers, Dr. David Ucko and Dr. Robert Egnell Interview. The United States has a long but convoluted history of counterinsurgency, or COIN. Thompson's underlying assumption is that of a country minimally … Army Field Manual 3-24: Counterinsurgency [open pdf - 14 MB] "This field manual/Marine Corps war-fighting publication establishes doctrine (fundamental principles) for military operations in a counterinsurgency (COIN) environment. 10, The Janus Face of War Counter Insurgency in the Post Modern Era, pp. Conversely leaders should also look at unsuccessful COIN campaigns to see what mistakes to avoid. 0000005789 00000 n x�b```b``�d`c`�� Ȁ ���, ,YdE{.~��zN�}�%���ҟ�60`|B�F! It is based on lessons learned from previous counterinsurgencies and contemporary operations. <]>> 0000019861 00000 n The principles and imperatives of modern counterinsurgency provide guideposts for forces engaged in COIN campaigns. (1) COIN is a combination of offensive, defensive, and stability operations spanning multiple agencies. %PDF-1.4 %���� The enclosed Allied Joint Publication AJP-3.4.4, Edition A, Version 1, ALLIED JOINT DOCTRINE FOR COUNTER-INSURGENCY (COIN), which has been But, while the aggressive pursuit of insurgent forces is necessary, it is insufficient to achieve victory—and if undertaken in indiscriminate fashion can actually backfire by creating more insurgents than you capture or kill. 0000014469 00000 n Securing the population is thus the most important line of operations. 0000005456 00000 n principles) in counter-insurgency warfare in order to optimize conditions for success on the battlefield as well as throughout the duration of the conflict. Such unrestrained use of force characterised by outrageous airpower shooting and heavy attacks on the hamlets severely damaged their credibility with the rural population (Ong, 2007, p. 16). The Taliban … (2010). 0000004605 00000 n 0000005213 00000 n �E��.0�xޢ/����� pWW�7���]�X��g$��+6,�y�0e��~D~��"��V�R|e����C�ϋ�x�L �%� �pr^�>֜�~����h�%�A-v��.wR��M�� �Z�����̶�b���*|�? Counterinsurgency is warfare; it is distinctly political, not primarily military; and it involves the people, the government, and the military. ]JKa��c*����idD�#���^PQ[b�;sd�G���j���ߨ$�?�=�3 ��o�8���Tdi�� Consequently, … Some of that intelligence can be acquired by technical means, but there is no substitute for the situational awareness provided by security forces (whether American or host-nation) who are in daily contact with the population. What are some principles, which you have identified, that have not changed with the evolution of technology? H�tT]o�0}ϯ��0%��TUZ�Vj�HU˴��8��#B��w��Ǻ.y ���{�.F,b��P���x�͠�!�Q�80(��� >���@ZU 0000014300 00000 n Combined-arms operations will be required to route insurgents out of their strongholds and to provide security against their incursions into population centers. What training can I implement into my unit so that subordinates will develop a better understanding of COIN? 0000014936 00000 n The security line of operations must be buttressed by attempts to win the trust of the populace and enhance the legitimacy of the counterinsurgents. Created Date: 2/15/2008 12:09:02 PM Lawrence attributed his success in aiding the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire to "hard study and brain-work and concentration," an example at odds with what he denounced as the "fundamental, crippling, incuriousness" of many fellow officers who were "too much body and too little head." The strength of the relationship between these three groups generally determines the outcome of the campaign. Moreover the conditions for the growth of insurgency—chiefly a lack of effective governance—exist in many areas of the world, especially in Central Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and parts of Latin America and Southeast Asia. and Psychological Dimensions of War, Strategy and the Political Dimensions of War, Technology, Doctrine and Combat Development, FM 3-24: Army/Marine Counterinsurgency Field Manual, ATTP 3-37.31, Civilian Casualties Mitigation, June 2012, FM 3-05.2, Foreign Internal Defense, September 2011. Only by living among the people and protecting them from insurgent intimidation can a military force gain the people's trust and thus acquire the understanding necessary to target insurgent cadres. Using the principles of revolutionary warfare evolved by the British Staff College, Camberley, the author has examined the validity of those principles. 0000002916 00000 n x�bb�``b``Ń3� ���ţ�A.0 ��� 0000005177 00000 n 0000003067 00000 n Irregular warfare is the oldest form of warfare—it long predates the rise of conventional armies in ancient Mesopotamia around 3000 BC. 0000006447 00000 n 0000002540 00000 n 0000011630 00000 n 470 40 *�:����p��^� 'i����ߵ�y#p3J!�:�ā�k�Z�j(��5Vq���tm���|�ҹw�%ޠą��QZ��� The counterinsurgency guidance issued there is the argument that the by General McChrystal strongly echoed the appearance of stability in Iraq was counterinsurgency principles of FM 3–24 and illusory and that the country’s worst the guidance provided by General Petraeus in years still lie ahead Iraq. Irregular warfare has been ubiquitous throughout history and is more important than ever today, at a time when conventional warfare is growing increasingly rare. 0000004224 00000 n 1. Principles of Counterinsurgency The principles and imperatives of modern coun­ terinsurgency provide guideposts for forces engaged in cOiN campaigns. This FMI establishes doctrine (fundamental principles and TTP) for military operations in a counterinsurgency environment. Counterinsurgency in the Hot Revolutionary War 49 Laws and Principles of Counterinsurgency Warfare 50 Strategy of the Counterinsurgency 55 6. 470 0 obj <> endobj To what extent do you see classical principles of counterinsurgency still applicable today? studied FM 3-24 and now understand the history, philosophy and theory of counterinsurgency. xref 0000005712 00000 n This field manual establishes doctrine (fundamental principles) for tactical counterinsurgency (COIN) operations at the company, battalion, and brigade level. This project sets out to identify underlying tenets (or principles) in counter-insurgency warfare in order to optimize conditions for success on the battlefield as well as throughout the duration of the conflict. You watched Black Hawk Down and The Battle of Algiers, and you know this will be the most difficult challenge of your life. 0000002766 00000 n Department of the Army Field Manual (FM) 3-24, Counterinsurgency, defines COIN as military, paramilitary, political, economic, psychological, and civic actions taken by a government to defeat an insurgency. --Field Marshal Sir Gerald Templer. It does mean addressing the desire of the people for self-determination and the delivery of some basic governmental services. Insurgents, in fact, count on security forces to over-react and thereby to drive more recruits into their ranks. Demarest, Geoffrey. 0000003218 00000 n 0000002614 00000 n 0000003369 00000 n 509 0 obj<>stream counterinsurgency” requires that civilian political leadership have a core understanding of the basic principles of COIN. Maneuver Self Study Program Linkedin Page, Counterinsurgency Discussion Linkedin Page, This is an official U.S. Army Website sponsored by U.S. Army Maneuver Center of Excellence (MCoE), Moral, Ethical, "Irregular warfare is far more intellectual than a bayonet charge." fG1400263H the contrary, the US Army considered it its greatest technological advantage against the insurgents (Laqueur, 1998, p. 275). How "self determination" and "services" are defined will vary from country to country and even from village to village. At its core, a counterinsurgency is a battle for government legitimacy in the minds of its people. Our enemies study, and are inspired by, the examples of Vietnam, Beirut (1983), Somalia (1993), Iraq, Afghanistan and other conflicts where irregular forces have inflicted significant setbacks and even defeats on American forces. The author concludes that a Viet Cong military victory in South Vietnam is not possible as long as the United States in supporting the government. This infers a connection between this past decade of counterinsurgency, and the people’s wars of previous eras. They collaboratively authored the book "Counterinsurgency in Crisis. The ten principles for counterinsurgency, explained in Chapter 3, are: 1. Formalized property regimes will lessen chances of conflict within a society. America's enemies understand that to fight the U.S. armed forces with conventional forces in the open field is tantamount to suicide—as Saddam Hussein discovered for himself. That said, the strategic significance of insurgency has ebbed and flowed over time. endstream endobj 508 0 obj<>/Size 470/Type/XRef>>stream H�l�MO�0���s�W$������p �R#q�{HS��nk������_��‰�y�}�u��@DB��D$e�B5B,�8� �Z�v�`ИA�ʆ�vO��*�;X�q>v}. Successfully countering an insurgency will require commanders to skillfully synchronize multiple lines of operations, acting in concert with host-nation forces as well as representatives of other U.S. government agencies. 0000005131 00000 n Rufus Phillips discusses his role as an American Advisor to the South Vietnamese Army in the 1950s and the lessons he learned from this experience. 0000014631 00000 n Insurgents capitalize on societal problems, often called gaps; counte… Block 2: Principles and Paradoxes of Counterinsurgency Module 2.1 Population-centric and Enemy-centric COIN Module 2.2 NATO Principles of COIN Module 2.3 Paradoxes of COIN Block 3: Operational Environment Module 3.1 Elements of a Stable State Module 3.2 Elements of State Instability Module 3.3 Components and Analysis of the Operational Environment Understanding what is involved in such campaigns will give civilian Of those principles one must understand insurgencyto comprehend the dynamics of revolutionary warfare evolved by British... 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That the population is thus the most important line of operations environmental conditions can we into! In Chapter 3, are: 1: I think many of the.. Predates the rise of conventional military operations in a counterinsurgency environment for forces engaged in campaigns. The campaign of conventional armies in ancient Mesopotamia around 3000 BC of counterinsurgency! Their ranks the population is thus the most important line of operations be! Far higher likelihood of success against American military forces can I implement into my unit so that subordinates will a! Core, a counterinsurgency campaign and even from village to village drive more recruits into their ranks well known the..., economic, psychological, and stability operations spanning multiple agencies author has examined validity. Intellectual than a bayonet charge. develop a better understanding of the basic principles of counterinsurgency still applicable?!, pp: Bringing the ‘Basic principles of COIN chances of conflict within a society a counterinsurgency is a and... Generally determines the outcome of the several paradoxes of counterinsurgency against their incursions into centers! Legitimacy in the Hot revolutionary War 49 Laws and principles of COIN attp 3-37.31, civilian Casualties,... This infers a connection between this past decade of counterinsurgency still applicable?!

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